Скачать / Download:


Absract: In the article, properties of the author and the addressee in the genre of letter to the newspaper in the SovietIn the article, properties of the author and the addressee in the genre of letter to the newspaper in the SovietUnion and in the emigration society are considered. The description of the figure of the author is based ontwo oppositions: 1) the number of authors: individual vs. collective author and 2) the level of privacy: privatevs. social person. The analysis of the ways of marking the author in the texts of letters makes it evident that inthe Soviet newspapers, the ‘social’ domain prevails over the ‘personal’ one, while in the letters to the emigrantnewspapers, these two domains are equally represented. As the data show, the most important for the analysisof the addressee is to distinguish the following three types of the addressee: the mass addressee, the formaladdressee, and the principal one. The mass addressee includes the whole readership of the newspaper. Theformal one is the editor-in-chief of the newspaper, who the author of the letter addresses just to observethe courtesy norms. By the principal addressee, I mean the person or the group of people whose attentionor reaction is really important for the author and who are mentioned in the body of letter. Throughout thearticle I show in which manner these three types of the addressee interact with each other and which languagemechanisms serve to introduce them, the particular attention being given to the differences between the lettersmechanisms serve to introduce them, the particular attention being given to the differences between the lettersto the Soviet and to the emigrate newspapers. One of the important conclusions I draw in the end of the articleis that the presence of the mass addressee in letters to newspapers leads to substantial shifts in communicativepurposes of specific types of letters.
Keywords: letters to newspapers, properties of author and addressee, indirect addressee, illocutionary purpose, genre of discourse, linguistic properties of letters to newspapers, mass communication, courtesy forms.
Pages: 38-55
Author: Elena A. Nikishina
Information about the author: Candidate of Philological Sciences, Senior Lecturer at the National Research University Higher School of Economics (Faculty of Humanities, School of Linguistics), 21/4 Staraya Basmannaya Ulitsa Moscow, 105066, Russia helene_nikichina@mail.ru


1. [Bakhtin, M.M. [The Problem of Speech Genres]. Bakhtin, M.M. Estetika slovesnogo tvorchestva [The Aesthetics of Verbal Creation]. Moscow, Iskusstvo Publ., 1986. P. 250–296.]

2.  [Bühler, K. [Principles of Language Science]. Bühler, K. Teoriya yazyka [Theory of Language]. Moscow, Progress Publ., 1993. P. 20–66.]

3. [Jacobson, R. [Linguistics and Poetics]. Jacobson, R. Strukturalizm: “za” i “protiv” [Structuralism: Pro and Contra]. Moscow, Progress Publ., 1975. P. 193– 230.]

4. Hymes D. Models of the interaction of language and social life. In J. Gumperz & D. Hymes (eds), Directions in sociolinguistics: The ethnography of communication. New York: Holt, Rhinehart & Winston. P. 35–71.

5.  [Zemskaya, E.A., Kitaigorodskaya, M.V., Shiryaev, E.N. Russkaya razgovornaya rech': Obshchie voprosy. Slovoobrazovanie. Sintaksis [Russian Colloquial Speech: General Issues. Derivation. Syntax]. Moscow, Nauka Publ., 1981.]

6. [Kitaigorodskaya, M.V., Rozanova, N.N. Rech' moskvichei. Kommunikativnokul'turologicheskii aspect. 2-e izdanie. [The Speech of Muscovites. Communicative-Culturological Aspect. The 2nd Edition]. Moscow, Nauchnyi mir Publ., 2005.]7. Шмелева Т.В. Модель речевого жанра // Жанры речи: сборник научных статей. Вып. 1. Саратов: Изд-во ГосУНЦ “Колледж”, 1997. С. 88–98. [Shmeleva, T.V. [A Model of Speech Genre]. Zhanry rechi: sbornik nauchnykh statei. Vypusk 1. [Genres of Speech: Collection of Research Papers. Volume 1]. Saratov, GosUNC kolledzh Publ., 1997. P. 88–98.]

8.  [Murav’eva, N.V. Yazyk konflikta [Language of Conflict] Moscow, MEI Publ., 2002.]

9. [Solganik, G. Ya. [Author as a Style-Forming Category of the Journalistic Text]. Vestnik Moskovskogo universiteta. Serija 10. Zhurnalistika [Moscow State University Bulletin. Series 10. Zhurnalistika]. 2001, Vol. 3. P. 74–83.]

10.  [Kitaigorodskaya, M.V., Rozanova, N.N. Yazykovoe sushchestvovanie sovremennogo gorozhanina: Na materiale yazyka Moskvy [Language Existence of the Modern Urban Citizen: Based on the Language of Moscow]. Moscow, Yazyki slavyanskikh kul’tur Publ., 2010.]

11. [Kozlova, N.N., Sandomirskaya, I.I. “Ya tak khochu nazvat’ kino”. “Naivnoe pis’mo”: Opyt lingvo-sotsiologicheskogo chteniya [“I Want to Name My Film in This Way”. “Naïve Letters”: A Linguo- Sociological Reading]. Moscow, Gnozis Publ., Russkoe fenomenologicheskoe obshchestvo, 1996.]

12.  [Apresyan, Yu.D. [Deixis in Lexicon and Grammar and the Naïve Model of World]. Semiotika i informatika. Sbornik nauchnykh statei. Vypusk 28 [Semiotics and Informatics. Collection of Research Papers. Volume 28]. Moscow, VINITI RAN Publ., 1986. P. 5–33.]

13. [Lenin, V.I. [Party Organization and Party Literature]. Novaya Zhizn'. № 12, 13 noyabrya 1905 [New Life. Volume 12, 13 November 1905]. Cited by: http://www.revolucia. ru/org_lit.htm (accessed on 18.01.2018).]

14.  [Nikishina, E.A. Zhanrovoe svoeobrazie pisem chitatelei v gazety (na materiale emigrantskikh i sovetskikh gazet 20-kh godov XX v. [Genre Characteristics of Readers’ Letters to Newspapers (Based on Emigrant and Soviet Newspapers of 1920ths)]. Moscow, Izdatel’skii dom YaSK Publ., 2017.]

15. [Formanovskaya, N.I. Rechevoe obshchenie: kommunikativno- pragmaticheskii podkhod. [Verbal Communication: Communicative-Pragmatic Approach]. Moscow, Russkii yazyk Publ., 2002.]

16. [Weiss, D., Kummer, R. [Soviet Food Discourse]. Eda po-russki v zerkale yazyka (kollektivnaya monografiya) [The Russian Food in the Language Perspective (Collective Monograph)]. N.N. Rozanova, M.V. Kitaigorodskaya, U. Doleschal, D. Weiss i dr. Moscow, RGGU Publ., IRYa RAN Publ., 2013.]

17.  [Prokhorov, E.P. Epistolyarnaya publitsistika [Epistolar Publicism]. Moscow, MGU Publ., 1966.]

18.  [Ozhegov, S.I. [A Sketch of Development of the Russian Language in the Soviet Epoch]. Izvestiya AN SSSR, Otdelenie literatury i yazyka, tom X, vypusk 1. [Bulletin of the Russian Academy of Sciences. Studies in Literature and Language. Volume 10. Number 1]. 1951. P. 22–36.]

19.  [Pocheptsov, G.G. [On Communicative Typology of the Addressee]. Rechevye akty v lingvistike i metodike: Sbornik nauchnykh trudov [Speech Acts in Linguistics and Methodology: A Collection of Research Papers]. Pyatigorsk, PGPIIYa Publ., 1986. P. 10–17.]

20. Kerbrat-Orecchioni C. Les interactions verbales. Tome I. Paris: Armand Colin, 1990.

21.  [Zaliznyak, Anna A. [A Diary: Towards a Definition of the Genre]. Novoe literaturnoe obozrenie. № 106 [The New Literary Observer. Volume 106]. Moscow, 2010. P. 162–180. http://magazines.russ.ru/ nlo/2010/106/za14.html (accessed on 18.01.2018).] 22. Maingueneau D. Scénographie épistolaire et débat public. In J. Siess (ed.), La lettre entre réel et fiction. Paris: Sedes, 1998. P. 55–71.

23.  [Zemskaya, E.A. Mikhail Bulgakov i ego rodnye: Semeinyi portret [Mikhail Bulgakov and his Relatives: A Family Portrait]. Moscow, Yazyki slavyanskoi kul’tury Publ., 2004.]