Pages: 38-55
Author: Elena A. Nikishina
Information about the author: Candidate of Philological Sciences, Senior Lecturer at the National Research University Higher School of Economics (Faculty of Humanities, School of Linguistics), 21/4 Staraya Basmannaya Ulitsa Moscow, 105066, Russia
Absract: In the article, properties of the author and the addressee in the genre of letter to the newspaper in the SovietIn the article, properties of the author and the addressee in the genre of letter to the newspaper in the SovietUnion and in the emigration society are considered. The description of the figure of the author is based ontwo oppositions: 1) the number of authors: individual vs. collective author and 2) the level of privacy: privatevs. social person. The analysis of the ways of marking the author in the texts of letters makes it evident that inthe Soviet newspapers, the ‘social’ domain prevails over the ‘personal’ one, while in the letters to the emigrantnewspapers, these two domains are equally represented. As the data show, the most important for the analysisof the addressee is to distinguish the following three types of the addressee: the mass addressee, the formaladdressee, and the principal one. The mass addressee includes the whole readership of the newspaper. Theformal one is the editor-in-chief of the newspaper, who the author of the letter addresses just to observethe courtesy norms. By the principal addressee, I mean the person or the group of people whose attentionor reaction is really important for the author and who are mentioned in the body of letter. Throughout thearticle I show in which manner these three types of the addressee interact with each other and which languagemechanisms serve to introduce them, the particular attention being given to the differences between the lettersmechanisms serve to introduce them, the particular attention being given to the differences between the lettersto the Soviet and to the emigrate newspapers. One of the important conclusions I draw in the end of the articleis that the presence of the mass addressee in letters to newspapers leads to substantial shifts in communicativepurposes of specific types of letters.
Keywords: letters to newspapers, properties of author and addressee, indirect addressee, illocutionary purpose, genre of discourse, linguistic properties of letters to newspapers, mass communication, courtesy forms.


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